Sunday, February 26, 2017

Hypertension ( High Blood Pressure)

Hypertension is also known as High Blood Pressure is pressure feels on arteries as blood flows. Heart pumped low oxygen level blood toward lungs, where oxygen is present. Then oxygened blood supply towards hearts and other muscles of the body. This pumping of blood create pressure called Blood Pressure
If any one has blood pressure 140/90 or above then this stage is of B.P. called Hypertensoin or High Blood Pressure. 

Symptoms:- 

  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Blurred or double vision
  • Dyspnea
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea

Wednesday, February 1, 2017

HIV AIDS

AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is a disease caused by HIV virus. This virus attacks immune system, which is defence system of our body. This virus start killing white blood cells and start making same kind of virus inside itself.

HIV is of mainly two types

HIV-1 This is the most common type which affect people worldwide.

HIV-2 This is found in mostly in Africa and little bit in Europe and India.

This virus transfer from one person to other by blood contact and sexual contact. If a pregnant woman is infected with HIV then her baby can also be infected by feeding milk, or baby delivery.
This virus can be tranfer through unsafe sexual contact, blood transfusion, and contaminated needles.

Symptoms:- Symptoms of HIV has not shown for several years. Normal symptoms see in HIV infected person are

  • A Red Rash
  • Sore Throat
  • Sweats
  • Tiredness
  • Weakness
  • Enlarged Glands
  • Weight Loss
  • Joint Pain

When starting symptoms not seen then this virus kills immune system slowly and it can take upto 10 years. Infected person lives normal healthy life during this period. 

Symptoms of late stage HIV :-
  • Shortness of breath
  • Diarrhea
  • Permanent tiredness
  • Swollen glands for weeks
  • Night Sweat
  • White spots on mouth and tounge
Diagnoses:- Blood Test is one of the common way to test HIV. If report come positive then it has checked many times before given to patient. 

ELISA Test ELISA means Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay generally used to check HIV infection. This test's result may not accurate if infection is on early stage. 

Saliva Test- In saliva test, a cotton pad is placed for getting saliva. After getting saliva, pad is sent to laboratory and result may come within 3 days. Blood report confirm positive results.

Treatment :- There is no any treatment for HIV AIDS.  But some drugs are available which control this virus. 

Sunday, January 29, 2017

Diabetes

Diabetes occur when blood glucose increase too high. Glucose is main source of energy in body. Our body get glucose from food which we eat. Insulin is a hormone which help glucose from food to cells. Sometimes body stops making insulin, resulting glucose start staying in blood and not reached in cells.

Diabetes of Three Types

Type 1 Diabetes:- In this type, body not produce insulin. Immune system start destroying cells of pancreas which make insulin. People have to take insulin daily to survive.

Type 2 Diabetes:- In this type, body doesn't make insulin and use it. You can suffer with type 2 diabetes at any age. Type 2 is most common diabetes.

Gastational Diabetes:- This type of diabetes occur in pregnant women. It goes away after baby born. But if you have once gastational diabetes, then you have great chance of Type 2 Diabetes.

Symptoms:-

  • Frequent Urination
  • Fatigue
  • Intense thirst and hunger
  • Weight Gain
  • Unusual weight loss
  • Numbness and tingling in hands and feet
  • Male Sexual Dysfunction
  • Blurred vision 
  • Itchy skin
  • Cut and Bruises don't heal quickly



Diagnoses:-
Diabetes can be diagnosed by urine test. If highly amount of sugar find in urine then you are suffering from diabetes.

Treatment:- There are lots of medicine available which can cure diabetes
  • Glipizide
  • Glyburide
Metformin is most common treatment given by doctor to patient. 

Friday, January 27, 2017

Heart Attack

Heart Attack usually happen when oxygen rich blood's flow suddenly stop at a particular area of heart and heart can't get oxygen. If blood flow not start quickly then that area of heart become dead.
Coronary heart disease is the main reason of heart attack. It build up a waxy substance Plaque inside the coronary arteries, which supply blood flow to the heart.
Plaque start rupturing inside arteries, and it start becoming blood clotting. When this clotting become big enough then it stop blood supply to heart resulting Heart Attack

Symptoms:- Following symptoms are for diagnose Heart Attack


  • Cough
  • Dizziness
  • Face seems gray
  • Chest pain
  • Nausea
  • Restlessness
  • Vomiting
  • Dyspnea
  • Shortness of Breath
Cause of Heart Attack:-
  • High Blood Cholesterol 
  • Diabetes
  • Genes
  • Angina
  • Smoking
  • HIV

Diagnose:-
 All doctor will refer hospital if they seem patient is suffering with heart attack

ECG - This test check electrical activity of heart
Cardiac Enzyme Test- This test check enzyme produce during heart attack
Chest X-Ray- X-ray show swelling of heart

Treatment:- 
  • Angioplasty
  • Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
  • Aspirin
  • Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

Monday, January 23, 2017

Tuberculosis (TB)

Tuberculosis commonly called TB is infectious disease which usually attack lungs. This disease can spread into other parts of the body like spine and brain. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis is the bacteria which cause TB. This bacteria spread from person to person. If a person is infected from this bacteria, then the person surround him can also infected. This bacteria spread if infected person sneezes, cough, talk. If you breath in this area. then you can also infected.

Tuberculosis is of two type,

  • Latent TB
  • Active TB


Latent TB :-  In this type, bacteria lives in body as inactive stage, and you can not get any kind of symptoms. But infection remain in your body as well. So it can be active one day. To prevent them, Doctor prescribe antibiotics.

Active TB :- In this type, germs multiply and they can make you sick. Now you can spread this disease to other also.

Symptoms :- For Latent TB, no symptoms are shown. Skin test is enough to know the infection in the body.
Following symptoms will show if you have Active TB

  • Cough more than 3-4 weeks.
  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Pain in chest
  • No Appetite
  • Sweating at night
Diagnosis:- A very common way to check TB is skin test. where an injection of PPD Tuberculin is inserted just below the forearm and left for 2-3 days. If red hard bump swollen up then this can declare a TB Bacteria is present in body.
Even This skin test is not 100% accurate so doctor also ask for other test like Chest X-ray, Blood Test and Sputum Test.

Treatment:- If you have Latent TB, then you can just take antibiotics or only one type of TB drugs.
 But if you are suffering from Active TB then you have to take several TB drugs at once. 

Rifampin 
Bedaquiline
Linezolid
Pyrazinamide

Above are some medicine which are very effective and usefull for TB patient, Amount of drugs is depends on age of patient.

Wednesday, January 18, 2017

Seizures

Seizure is chemical change in nerve system of brain, electrical activity. Seizure can be caused by Brain Tumor, head injuries, Genetic illness, Lead Poisoning, Fever. Single Seizure is not a disease. But repeating Seizures again and again can be determined as Epilepsy;

Brain Tumor

Brain Tumor can be two type. One contain cancer cell called Maligant other do not contain cancer cell called Benign. Brain tumor can be caused at any age of human. Exact reason of brain tumor is not yet clear till now. Symptoms are also depends on size and type.

Symptoms:- Very common symptoms of brain tumor is headache, Seizure, Numbness, eyes weakness, and ear weakness. Brian Tumor is differentiate in four stage. In Fourth stage cells go out of control and its deadly dangerous.




Common Brain Tumor found in adults are Oligodendroglioma and Astrocytoma and in children Glimo and Brain Stem Glimo.

Diagnoses:- If you have symptoms of Brain Tumor, then doctor may check your vision, alertness, hearing. Doctor may ask you for MRI and CT scan. In MRI doctor see the picture of your head and recognize the affected area. Sometimes a contrast material is injected and see the abnormal area of tumor. And CT scan is one kind of X-RAY machine. Which take picture of diffrent part of head to see the abnormal area. Doctor may ask for Angiogram , Spinal Tap and Biopsy.

Treatment:- Treatment of Brain Tumor is depends of  the stage, location, size and age of the patient. This can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. 

In Surgery, doctor make an entry in skull for removing brain tumor. This process is called Craniotomy. Doctor try to remove whole tumor from the skull. If its not possible to remove entire tumor, then doctor remove tumor as much as possible. 



In Radiation Therapy, is also known as radiotherapy, doctor use rays to damage cancer cell and stop them to grow. This therapy is used when tumor can not be removed with surgery or some cell remains after surgery. 




In Chemothrapy, doctor use drugs to kill cancer cells. This therapy is given in sevral periods depends on recovery time. Doctors give drugs orally or by injected into muscles or blood vessel. Patients are not need to stay at hospital for chemotherapy.


Monday, January 16, 2017

Common Cold- Symptoms, Diagnose and Cure

Common Cold can be identify if you are suffering with Runny Nose, Sneezing, Nasal Congestion and Coughing. It goes away by own. But sometimes you have to take doctor's appointment for diagnosis.

In adults:- You have to visit doctor if you have....
  • Fever more than 102 ͒ F
  • Headache
  • Sinus Pain
  • Sore Throat
For Children:- In common cold, there's no need of medical attention for your children. But you have to visit doctor if your child have
  • Fever more than 100 ͒ F
  • Lack of Appetite
  • Ear Pain
  • Wheezing
  • Headache or Cough
Cause:- Rahinovirus is the most common virus for common cold. Lots of other virus are also cause common cold. 
This virus enter in your body via mouth nose or eyes. This virus also spread if someone who is sick with common cold sneezing, cough or talk. This virus also spread by body contect. If you come in contact with suffered person. and you touch your nose or eyes. Then this virus enter in your body.

Treatment:- There's no treatment is available for common cold. Decongestant can be taken by adults for four to five days. 
You can take cough syrup if you are suffering with cough. 

Sunday, January 15, 2017

Ebola Virus- Disease Diagnose and Treatment

Ebola virus is very rare to find but its very deadly virus. It breakdown blood clotting system and bleeding start inside and outside the body. This virus transmit from body and damage immune system and organs of body. And the result is uncontrollable bleeding. This disease is also known as one more name Ebola hemorrhagic fever and it kills more than 90% people who is infected.

How do you infected with Ebola:- This virus is not a common virus like sneeze, cold or measles. It transfer to people with body contact or fluids of an infected animal. The person who care for infected person can get infected.
Other way to get Ebola is touching used needles on infected Ebola patient. Ebola is not spreading through air, water or food.

Symptoms Of Ebola Virus:- Ebola is just like flu or illness. Its signs show up from 2 to 21 days. Symptoms are

1. Sore Throat
2. Stomach pain
3. Joint Pain
4. Weakness
5. Headache
6. Lack of Appetite


The worst part of this disease is start bleeding inside and outside the body even from ear, nose and eyes. Sometimes people start blood vomit , diarrhea and rashes.

Ebola Diagnoses:- Its very hard to find out Ebola virus in person just on the bases of symptoms alone. Symptoms are as similar as malaria and cholera. So sometimes doctors ignore this deadly virus by thinking Ebola like malaria.
Blood test and tissue test can also diagnose Ebola virus.

If you are infected with Ebola, then you should isolate yourself form others to prevent the spread.

Ebola Treatment:- There's no medicine or cure for Ebola. Experimental vaccines of Ebola virus is under development but they are not fully tested.  But research is still going on it. 

Bird Flu

Bird Flu is also known as Avian Ifluenza is an infection which affect humans as well as animals. Mostly Virus are restricted to birds.

Very Common form of bird flu is H5N1. Its very dangerous for birds and can affect humans and animals who come in contact with carrier. According to World Health Organisation (W.H.O) Human affected with H5N1 virus was discovered in 1997 at very first time and more than 70% has killed who was infected. Currently this virus is not spread via human-to-human contact. But some experts are worry that H5N1 virus is threat to humans.

Bird Flu Symptoms :- You may be affected with H5N1 if you are experience one of the symptoms mention below
1. Diarrhea
2. Headache
3. Muscle Pain
4. Cough
5. Malaise
6. Sore Throat
7. Fever
8. Respiratory Difficulties
9. Runny Nose

If you are affected to bird flu, you should alert to hospital staff before you arrive to the hospital. Notifing to them before your arrival will allow them to take precautions to protect staff and other patients before attending you.

Cause Of Bird Flu :- H5N1 occurs naturally in wild waterfowl, but it is easily spread to domestic poultry. The disease transfers to humans by contacting with infected birds feces, nasal secretion from the mouth or eyes.

Eating fully cooked poultry or eggs from infected bird doesn't transfer the bird flu but egg should not be serve runny.

Diagnoses of Bird Flu :- A test called A/H5 identify Avian Influenza virus real time RT-PCR primer and probe set. This test show results only in four hours. This test is not commonly available.
Some doctor may ask for some other test to find out the presence of the virus which cause bird flu.
1.Auscultation 
2. White blood cell differential 
3. Nasopharyngeal culture

Treatment for Bird Flu :- There are different type of bird flu. As a results treatments may vary. In most of the cases doctor use antiviral meditations such as oseltamivir or zanamivir reduce the bird flu's symptoms. Medication must be given within 48 hours after symptoms first appear.

Your family or others who are very close contact with you might also be taken these antivirals as a preventive measure, even if they are not feeling sick. You should keep yourself in an isolation place so that this virus can not come in contact with other persons.